Bibliography thesis following the APA rules

Write in the bibliography of the thesis all the sources you used during your work. The bibliography of the thesis is placed at the end of the paper, before the appendix. The APA Style has very specific rules regarding the style of citation of the sources and the list of bibliographical references.

Basic rules for the thesis bibliography in APA Style

The list of bibliographical references of the thesis should contain only the sources that were actually used for the writing of the thesis. Even if in the text a source is mentioned several times, in the bibliography of the thesis it must be inserted only once. Formatting must follow the rules established by the APA Style.

Different types of sources require different types of formatting. Below are some examples showing the most common types of sources.

Authors according to the APA Style

In the bibliography of the thesis, we must always mention all the authors of a source. For the order of names, follow the order in the source itself. However, we must not put the authors of the source in alphabetical order.

It is necessary to start with the author’s surname, followed by a comma and the initials of the author’s name. If the author has a prefix in the surname (eg ‘van’), it must be written after the initials of the name. If the source has more than one author, put a comma between the names of the various authors. Use a & between the names of the last two authors of the source.

Attention: In the names of the authors there are some differences between English and Italian. We have compiled a list with all the differences for you.

APA generator

We have developed an APA Generator so you won’t have to memorize the right formatting for different types of sources. By entering the necessary information in the APA Generator, you can easily create references to the sources in the correct way.

Exceptions in the bibliography of the thesis

There are three cases in which it is not necessary to indicate the source in the bibliography of the thesis, even if it was used to write one’s own work. The following sources should be cited exclusively in the text:

Classic writings like the Bible

Personal communications such as e-mail, private letters, telephone conversations and messages

A website as a whole.

Alphabetical order of bibliographic references

The sources present in the bibliography of the thesis must be placed in alphabetical order. Thanks to the APA Generator, you can easily put all your bibliographic references in alphabetical order.

Difference between bibliographical references and bibliography

As you will have seen, in this article we do not use the word “bibliographic references” but “bibliography”. Bibliography and bibliographic references are not exactly the same thing. A bibliography indicates not only the sources to which direct reference is made within the text, but also all those sources you have consulted for the preparation of the paper.

For example, in a bibliography you will also indicate the newspaper from which you took inspiration for the topic of your thesis. According to the rules of the APA Style, this type of source should not be mentioned in the bibliographic references.

Formatting of the bibliography of the thesis in APA Style

After having indicated and put in alphabetical order all the sources used in the bibliography of the thesis, there is still something to fix. According to the APA Style, the sources that occupy more than one line must be indented starting from the second line.